PIECING TOGETHER THE PUZZLE OF THE NICHOLS-CARNEY PHOTOGRAPH COLLECTION-PART IV

Mystery photos of an attractive young woman posing for a portrait. How is she related to the NICHOLS and CARNEY family?

Elizabeth Bell CARNEY NICHOLS – Is this you?

 

 

 

 

 

An attractive young woman poses for her portrait at the West Side Gallery of Art in Greensburg, Pennsylvania. Could these be photos of Elizabeth Bell CARNEY NICHOLS, the wife of Charles Knerr NICHOLS , and the mother of Helena May NICHOLS? There are three cabinet cards. None of them are labeled. I would have been quite content if just one photo were labeled.

The card stock used for the photos is square and heavyweight, has different colors for the face and back of the mount, and gold beveled edges. These clues indicate the photograph might have been taken between 1885 -1890. If this is Elizabeth, she would have been 20-24 years old. Perhaps Elizabeth CARNEY exchanged photographs with her soon-to-be-husband, Charles NICHOLS. He had his photograph taken in 1892. During this time Elizabeth CARNEY lived with her parents (Phillip and Lucinda Jane Fiscus CARNEY), in Park, Armstrong, Pennsylvania. Park is located 26 miles from the photographers studio in Greensburg.

Using clothing and hair styles is another method to date a photograph.  The young woman’s corset fitted style dress has a high collar, cloth covered buttons, and contrasting pattern lapels. She poses slightly different in each portrait. She also accessorizes her ensemble with variations. In the first photo she wears a satin ribbon around her neck, a straight gold lapel pin, and a gold chain looped around a button. (An observant reader noticed that the gold chain has a pair of scissors attached – thanks Janice Webster Brown of Genealogy Bloggers).  The second image she chose an umbrella lapel pin. In the late 1880’s jewelry tended toward novelty. In the third photograph she ties the ribbon on the opposite side of her neck and wears the umbrella lapel pin. Her dainty gem stone earrings are the same in each picture. Her fluffy bangs and hair piled atop her head reflect a hairstyle typical for the late 1880’s. I consulted “An Illustrated History of Hairstyles 1830-1930”, by Marian I. Doyle, and found a photograph of a woman wearing a very similar hairstyle and dress. The estimated date was 1883-1886.

If only pictures could talk. What would this young woman tell me?

© 2017 copyright Kendra Hopp Schmidt. All rights reserved.

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PIECING TOGETHER THE PUZZLE OF THE NICHOLS-CARNEY PHOTOGRAPH COLLECTION –PART III

PIECING TOGETHER THE PUZZLE OF THE NICHOLS-CARNEY PHOTOGRAPH COLLECTION –PART III – HELENA MAY NICHOLS

NICHOLS – CARNEY family photos and documents.

In 2016 I received a package. It included 16 photographs and assorted land documents for the ancestors and descendants of Charles Knerr NICHOLS (1865-1951), and his wife Elizabeth (Lizzie) Bell CARNEY (1865-1955). Charles and Lizzie passed these treasures on to their only child, Helena May NICHOLS. She in turn passed them on to her daughter, Sara, (Sally) LEFKOWITZ BOZEK TOWLE. Unfortunately, only three of the pictures have names. The puzzle is to piece together the bits of information I know, and share it in the hopes that someone will recognize the unidentified faces. Please contact me if you have any suggestions.

HELENA MAY NICHOLS – 6 MONTHS OLD

A faded cabinet card shows a bald baby girl. She sits propped up against a plush animal skin throw. A wide ruffled lace collar encircles her little intense face, and a dainty cotton dress envelops all but her tiny hands. She gazes intently at someone, perhaps the photographer, A.S. (Agnish Simeon) Schreckengost. The back of the cabinet card is labeled Helena May Nichols, 6 1/2 months old. The only child of Charles Knerr NICHOLS and Elizabeth Bell CARNEY, Helena was born May 25, 1895 in Ap0llo, Pennsylvania. She was named for her paternal grandmother, Helena KNERR NICHOLS who died in 1875, twenty years before her granddaughter’s birth.

Helena May Nichols, 6 1/2 months old. Photographer A.S. Schreckengost, Kittaning and Apollo, PA.

 

Helena May Nichols, 61/2 months old

TWO MYSTERY PHOTOS – HELENA NICHOLS?

There are two additional photographs that I believe depict Helena May NICHOLS in her early years.  The first portrait features a pretty young girl about 7-10 years old, seated with her hands gently folded in her lap. She wears a fine white cotton dress, the high neck edged in lace.  Eyelet enhanced ruffles drape over the bodice and full sleeves. Long ringlets cascade over her shoulders and a large bow sets off a few wayward curls on her forehead. A bracelet of gold links encircles her left wrist and she wears a delicate gemstone ring on her left middle finger. The photograph bears the label Holyer.  This is the same studio that took the photograph of Helena’s father, Charles, about 1903-1905, when he visited his younger sister, Bertha NICHOLS DONALDSON in Trenton, New Jersey. I think it’s possible that Helena accompanied her father on this trip, and had her photograph taken at the same studio.

Is this Helena May Nichols? Photographer Holyer, Trenton, New Jersey.

A third unlabeled photograph features a poised young woman approximately 15 years old. The clothing style indicates a time period around 1912. I believe this portrait is also Helena May NICHOLS.  All of the facial features, including the shape of the face, as well as the small mouth, the nose, the eyes and the ears are the same as in the previous photograph. Seated on a padded bench, a nature scene in the background, the slender young woman poses in an elegant fashionable dress. The bodice and sleeves are trimmed with narrow tucks and embroidery.  A sheer over skirt delicately drapes over the lustrous silk taffeta  under skirt. I imagine the dress in pastel colors and can almost hear the soft rustle of the fabric. Her left hand gracefully holds the folds of her dress. She wears a gemstone on her ring finger and a gold bracelet adorns her forearm. Befitting her status as a young woman, “Helena” wears her hair swept up into a “Pompadour” style. There is no identifying information on the photograph indicating where it was taken. Perhaps the photographer’s studio was near Pittsburgh where the NICHOLS family lived in 1910. What was the special occasion that prompted this studio portrait? Perhaps it was the first time “Helena” wore her hear styled like a young woman?

Is this young woman Helena May Nichols?

Are these pictures of Helena May NICHOLS? Based on the provenance of the pictures and the photograph clues, I am almost positive that these two photographs depict Helena. What do you think?

HELENA’S STORY

Census records indicate that Helena lived at home with her parents until 1920.  According to a family source, Helena served as a Red Cross driver volunteer in WWI. I couldn’t find any information about her service but supposedly a framed certificate exists somewhere in the extended family.

I found one intriguing travel record for Helena. On March 18, 1924 she traveled from Havana, Cuba to Key West, Florida. Did the 28-year-old young woman travel alone?   During the 1920’s Cuba became a popular pleasure destination for Americans and Europeans. In 1924, Helena was one of 30,000 visitors to seek out the pleasant island climate.

MARRIAGE

About 1925 Helena married Charles LEFKOWITZ (1893-1983), a 32-year-old pharmacist and immigrant. When he immigrated to the United States in August, 1908, fifteen- year old Charles arrived with the name Kaplan Leokovics. The passenger list for the German ocean liner Prinz Friedrich Wilhelm, described Kaplan as  5 feet tall, fair-haired, blue-eyed, occupation- farm laborer. He was accompanied by his sister Berta, age 16,  4’8”, fair-haired, brown eyes, and occupation – maid. The  The two siblings were born in Telek-haza Austro-Hungary. Their home at the time of their immigration is noted as Szecsudvar, which was also part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.  After WWI this area became part of the independent country of Czechoslovakia. Today that same village, Szecsudvar, is called Dvorianky and is part of Slovakia. In 1918 Charles applied for U.S. citizenship. His application notes his height as 5’8”, 138 pounds, and his occupation as a druggist. Charles received his U.S. citizenship on January 2, 1924 in Pittsburgh, PA.

Kaplan Lefkovics – Charles Lefkowitz – Naturalization Records, ancestry.com

After their marriage Helena and Charles settled in New Kensington, PA where Charles established a successful business. He started on Fifth Avenue with one drug store and expanded the Central Drug stores to 26 locations.

CHILDREN

Between 1925-1931, Helena and Charles added three children to their family.

  1. Charles (Charlie) Nichols LEFKOWITZ born September 27, 1925 Pittsburgh, PA – died September 2015, Arizona. (Charles legally changed his name to Charles Lefkowitz NICHOLS).
  2. Robert (Bob) Nichols LEFKOWITZ, M.D., Ph.D., born November 15, 1926, Pittsburgh, PA – died August 31, 2007, Asheville, NC. (Robert legally changed his name after 1950 to Robert Lefkowitz NICHOLS.)
  3. Sara Elizabeth (Sally) NICHOLS BOZEK TOWLE born November 14, 1931 Los Angeles, CA  – died February 10, 2014, CA.

THE LATER YEARS

About 1958 Helena and Charles relocated to sunny Arizona.  Helena died at age 69 on March, 23, 1965 in Scottsdale, Arizona. Reverend Lyle Burns conducted her funeral service at Valley Lutheran Church. Charles died at age 90 on July 28, 1983. His funeral services were conducted by Rabbi Samuel Seicol, at Sinai Mortuary Chapel. Helena and Charles are interred together at Green Acres Cemetery, Scottsdale, Arizona.

Charles and Helena Lefkowtiz, Green Acres Memorial Gardens, Scottsdale, Arizona.

Until a few years ago, I was ignorant of Helena’s existence. I  still only have snippets of information about her. When  and why did my relatives lose contact with Helena and her family? Was it the distance of 940 miles from Pennsylvania to Nebraska? Was it simply the passage of time and generations? In speaking to my mother, she recalls her grandmother, Mabel NICHOLS HYDE spoke warmly about the LEFKOWITZ family in Pennsylvania. At the time she did not know how they were related. Contact may have been lost after Mabel died in 1954.

Helena is my 1st cousin, 3 generations removed. Far removed, as my husband says.  However, it is through distant cousin connections that we find the missing pieces of the puzzle and create a more complete family story. Perhaps one of these cousins can help solve the NICHOLS brick wall through DNA testing and combining our research. Who are Helena May NICHOLS’ 2x great-grandparents? What is their story?

© 2017 copyright Kendra Hopp Schmidt. All rights reserved.

Genealogy Sketch

Name: Helena NICHOLS
Parents: Charles Knerr NICHOLS and Elizabeth Bell CARNEY
Spouse: Charles LEFKOWITZ
Children: Charles Lefkowitz, Robert Lefkowitz, and Sara Elizabeth
Relationship to Kendra: 1st cousin 3x removed

 

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OLD PHOTOGRAPHS SERENDIPITY & COUSIN CONNECTIONS – The First CHARLES KNERR NICHOLS

Nichols family photos and documents.

Nichols family photos and documents.

Piecing together the Puzzle of the Nichols-Carney Photograph Collection

Six months ago I received a package that included 16 photographs plus assorted land documents for the ancestors and descendants of Charles Knerr Nichols (1865-1951) and his wife Elizabeth Bell Carney(1865-1955). Since only three of the pictures have names written on the backside, the puzzle is to piece together the bits of information I know and share it.  My previous blog I began with the easiest piece of the family puzzle, a photograph of Thomas Ackley Nichols. His name is written on the back and it  matched copies of two more pictures.

Sticking with the obvious choice of the second labeled photograph, let me introduce the first Charles Knerr Nichols. (Yes, there are three men with the same name, three different generations, all related but not directly descended from the first one. The name undergoes a slight variation over time. Can you detect it?)

 

                                 Lines of Descent from Thomas A. NICHOLS & Helena KNERR
John Mathews NICHOLS                                                                1. Charles KNERR NICHOLS
Frederick Mathew NICHOLS                                                          Helena NICHOLS
2.Charles KNERR NICHOLS
3.Charles KNEER NICHOLS (my second cousin 1x removed)

Charles Knerr Nichols, circa 1900-1903, Trenton, New Jersey, Holyer Photographers. Matted photograph 7 3/4″ x 6″.

The photograph of the first Charles Knerr Nichols depicts a very handsome man stylishly dressed in a double-breasted wool suit. He sports a patterned bow tie and crisp white shirt with a stand-up collar. His dark wavy hair is neatly combed and his full mustache well-groomed. The photographer of this image, Mr. Holyer,  operated a studio in Trenton, New Jersey. I found an online article detailing the Holyer family history. It noted that Albert and John Holyer owned the studio between 1900-1910.[1] I believe that this photograph of Charles dates to about 1903-1905.

Although a third image is not labeled, the resemblance to Charles is strong enough that I am certain it is a photograph taken when he was a few years younger. The image is a cabinet card with all the edges trimmed.  Was it cut to fit in a picture frame?  Again, Charles wears a double-breasted wool suit but the material is not as refined as in the first photo. His ready-to-wear suit covers all but the stiff white-collar of his shirt and the top of his patterned necktie. Although he still sports a mustache, it is thinner and his wavy hair is shorter. A hint of a smile plays on his lips. Fortunately the backside of the image states the date of delivery, May 24, 1892. I had difficulty deciphering the photographer’s name on the back of the image; the location is easy to read, Pittsburgh. Using the blog, Cabinet Card Gallery, I searched for photographers in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and found the one I sought, Joseph G. Morris. Located at 16 Sixth Street, Joseph Morris and his father, David, worked as photographic agents from about 1880-1910 in Pittsburgh.[2]

Charles Knerr Nichols, 1892, Pittsburgh, PA. Cabinet Card Photograph -trimmed - original probably 4.5"x6". Joseph Morris Photographer.

Charles Knerr Nichols, 1892, Pittsburgh, PA. Cabinet Card Photograph -trimmed – original probably 4.5″x6″. Joseph Morris Photographer.

 

 

Morris Photographer, No. 16, Sixth Street, Pittsburgh. Delivered May 24, 1892.

Morris Photographer, No. 16, Sixth Street, Pittsburgh. Delivered May 24, 1892.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHARLES KNERR NICHOLS – Early Years

By combining research from census records, church records, and newspaper articles, I constructed a basic biography for my 3x great-uncle. Charles Knerr Nichols was born 3 March 1865 in St. Clair, Pennsylvania to Thomas Ackley Nichols,(age 40) and Helena Knerr Nichols (age 33). Charles, the third child, joined his 8-year-old brother, John Mathews Nichols (my 2x great-grandfather), and 3-year-old Bertha Virginia Nichols. He arrived three months before his father’s discharge from the Union Army. His mother, Helena, stayed at home with the three children and Thomas resumed work as a clerk at a nearby coal mine.

1870 U.S. Census, St. Clair, Schuylkill, PA, Middle Ward,,p 658B; dwelling 237, family 232, Thomas Nichols; digital images, Ancestry.com.

1870 U.S. Census, St. Clair, Schuylkill, PA, Middle Ward,,p 658B; dwelling 237, family 232, Thomas Nichols; digital images, Ancestry.com.

The family dynamics changed in 1875 when Helena died of unknown causes at age 43.  How this affected ten-year-old Charles is unknown but later in life he named his only child after his mother. In the 1880 census 15-year-old Charles lived at home with his father Thomas, a clerk at a coal mine, and his sister, 18-year-old Bertha.

1880 U.S. Census, Shuylkill Co, PA,Saint Clair, p. 75C, dwelling 33, family 33, Thomas Nichols; digital images, Ancestry.com.

1880 U.S. Census, Shuylkill Co, PA,Saint Clair, p. 75C, dwelling 33, family 33, Thomas Nichols; digital images, Ancestry.com.

His elder brother John moved to Omaha, NE to seek work in the expanding railroads.[3] In December of 1880 the Nichols family of three expanded when 55-year-old Thomas remarried the much-younger 26-year-old Lillian Watson Bull.[4] Within three years Charles had three younger half-siblings, Mary, Florence, and Howard.

Father and sons -L-R - John Nichols (24), Thomas Nichols (40), Charles Nichols (abt 37).

Father and sons -L-R – John Nichols (24), Thomas Nichols (40), Charles Nichols (abt 37).

What physical resemblances do you see between the father and two sons?

Marriage and Family

What did Charles do between 1880-1890?  Although I can’t be certain, I believe that he moved to the Pittsburgh area and began working in the expanding steel industry.  During this period he met and courted his prospective bride.  On July 29, 1890 Charles Knerr Nichols (25) married Elizabeth (Lizzie) Bell Carney (25) at the home of her sister in Hazelton, Pennsylvania.[5] The bride and her parents, Phillip Carney and Lucinda Jane Fiscus Carney, resided in Apollo, a former coal-mining region located 35 miles NE of Pittsburgh.

Marriage Notice Luzerne County, PA, July 28, 1890, Charles Nichols and Lizzie Carney. Familysearch.com

Marriage Notice Luzerne County, PA, July 28, 1890, Charles Nichols and Lizzie Carney. Familysearch.com

Life Changing Events

Two major events occurred in the Nichols family in 1895. One involved the passing of life and the second focused on new life. On February 15, 1895 Thomas Ackley Nichols died; he left three orphans who needed a home. A maternal aunt and uncle took in 13 year old Mary. The two remaining siblings, 11-year-old Florence and 10-year-old Howard, presumably went to live with Charles and Lizzie. The Orphans Court named Charles the guardian in October 1895.[6] He probably felt a great deal of sympathy for his younger brother and sister knowing what it felt like to lose a parent so early in life.

Guardianship granted to Charles Nichols for his younger siblings. Compiled Service Record, Thomas A. Nichols, Lt, 9th Regiment, Co. K, PA Cavalry (92nd Volunteers); Carded Records, Volunteer Organizations, Civil War; Records of the Adjutant General’s Office 1780’s-1917, National Archives, Washington, D.C.

Guardianship granted to Charles Nichols for his younger siblings. Compiled Service Record, Thomas A. Nichols, Lt, 9th Regiment, Co. K, PA Cavalry (92nd Volunteers); Carded Records, Volunteer Organizations, Civil War; Records of the Adjutant General’s Office 1780’s-1917, National Archives, Washington, D.C.

Three months after his father’s death, the Nichols family  celebrated new life.  At age 30 Charles became a father when Helena May Nichols arrived on 25 May 1895 in Apollo, PA. Her name combined her maternal grandmother’s name with her birth month.

The 1900 census showed Charles listed as a Roller at a steel mill while Lizzie tended the home. They owned their own house on Lafayette Street in Allegheny Township, part of Vandergrift Borough, on the outskirts of Pittsburgh.[7]

1900 U.S. census, Allegheny co, PA, pop. schu, Westmoreland, ED 0075,p.6B, dwelling 104, family 117, Charles Nichols; digital images, Ancestry.com.

1900 U.S. census, Allegheny co, PA, pop. schu, Westmoreland, ED 0075,p.6B, dwelling 104, family 117, Charles Nichols; digital images, Ancestry.com.

Located nearby was the West Penn Steel Company. The works produced about 20,000 tons of steel annually and presented job opportunities for men who were willing to work hard, such as Charles Nichols. Fifteen-year-old Howard, Charles’s younger brother, lived at the Soldier’s Orphans Industrial School in Scotland, PA.[8] Florence, age 16, moved to Trenton, New Jersey where her older half-sister, Bertha Nichols Donaldson, lived. I believe Charles visited Bertha in Trenton about 1903 and had his photograph taken at Holyer photography studio.

The next record I found demonstrates Charles and Lizzie’s religious convictions. On 1 April 1900 a young evangelizing minister from the First United Church in Vandergrift, PA, William Wallace Youngson,  baptized 4-year-old Helena May Nichols.[9] She was one of two children baptized that day. Three months later, 8 July 1900, Charles and Lizzie became baptized members of the congregation along with 31 other adults and children.[10]

“Historic Pennsylvania Church and Town Records,” database, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 20 Feb 2017, entry for William Wallace Youngson, Pastoral and Statistical Records First United Methodist Church 1898 & 1900, citing “Historical Society of PA; Philadelphia.”

“Historic Pennsylvania Church and Town Records,” database, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 20 Feb 2017, entry for William Wallace Youngson, Pastoral and Statistical Records First United Methodist Church 1898 & 1900, citing “Historical Society of PA; Philadelphia.”

I found it interesting to examine the Pennsylvania church records on ancestry.com and then find newspaper articles about the growing church movement in the community. In 1898 the First United Methodist Church had 189 full members, 25 children baptized and 14 adults. In 1900 there were 404 full members, 29 children baptized and 23 adults.[11] A gospel temperance rally held in July 1898 by the Methodist Episcopal Church offered meetings featuring sermons on the work of the Holy Spirit and other religious topics. Reverand William W. Youngson himself converted at the meeting held in 1898.[12]

During the next decade, Charles gradually climbed the ladder in the steel industry. In 1909 West Penn Steel built a new plant in the growing community of Tarentum, PA, located 15 miles from Vandergrift. The plant estimated to cost about $500,000 could employ 1000 men in the beginning.[13] Charles must have been part of this expansion. In the 1910 census Charles and his family lived on Second Avenue in Tarentum and rented a home. Charles worked as a Manager at a Steelworks. In addition to Lizzie and Helena,  a 24-year-old mine engineer, Henry L Vane, lodged with the family.[14]

1910 U.S. census, Allegheny co, PA, pop sch., Ward 2, Tarentum, ED 0246, p. 10B, dwelling 200, family 214, & dwelling 209, Charles Nichols & Howard Nichols; digital images, Ancestry.com

1910 U.S. census, Allegheny co, PA, pop sch., Ward 2, Tarentum, ED 0246, p. 10B, dwelling 200, family 214, & dwelling 209, Charles Nichols & Howard Nichols; digital images, Ancestry.com

It was only as I wrote this article and re-examined the 1910 census record that I realized Charles’s younger brother, Howard, lived just a few houses down the street. Lesson learned, check records several times for clues.

Charles Nichols, 1914, Tarentum, Pennsylvania; VP of Brackenridge Country Club.

Charles Nichols, 1914, Tarentum, Pennsylvania; VP of Brackenridge Country Club.

Interested in his community, Charles became a founding member and Vice-President of the Brackenridge Country Club. A 1914 newspaper article I found provided a picture of the mature Charles. He still has thick dark hair and a well-groomed appearance but no longer wears a mustache. Active in business and civic affairs, Charles also served as president of the First National Bank of Tarentum.

 

 

 

 

As General Superintendent of the West Penn Steel plant, Charles handled the 1915 employee strikes that resulted in a slight increase in pay. Again in 1919 Charles agreed to the justice of the worker’s demands. They received the eight hour work day they desired.[15] How many hours were they working before the strike? Did Charles feel  sympathy for the workers since he understood the plight of the common man?

Successful at his job, Charles owned his own home in the 1920 census and served as the Assistant Manager at a Steel Mill at age 54. The household members included Charles, Lizzie, 24-year old Helena and the retired brother of Lizzie, Adam L. Carney.[16]

1920 U.S. census, Allegheny co., PA, pop sch. Ward 2, Tarentum, ED 831, p.5A, dwelling 85, family 103, Nichols, Charles K; digital images, Ancestry.com.

1920 U.S. census, Allegheny co., PA, pop sch. Ward 2, Tarentum, ED 831, p.5A, dwelling 85, family 103, Nichols, Charles K; digital images, Ancestry.com.

After ten years as general superintendent, Charles received a promotion in February 1921. The new vice president and general manager was noted in the Pittsburgh Press as “prominent in  independent steel circles.”[17]

The year 1925 was an eventful year for Charles. He retired from the Steel Mill at age 60 with a successful career behind him. A 1925 newspaper article listed Pittsburg residents who paid more than $500 in Federal income tax, most of the people paid between $1000-$3000 in Federal Taxes; Charles paid $10, 398.94.

FAMILY CONTACTS

I am always curious about contact between family members when they live far apart from one another. Even there are no letters saved from the Nichols family, I did find evidence that the siblings maintained some contact with one another. Charles assisted his extended family a couple of times. I found his name and address listed as a reference on a passport application for his nephew’s wife in June 1919. Charles sister,Bertha, married Warren Donaldson and settled in New Jersey. Their only son,  Lt. Warren Donaldson, married Marie Heinen from Luxemburg on June 16, 1919.[18]

“U.S. Passport Applications 1795-1925,” database, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 5 Feb 2017), entry for Marie H. Donaldson, Volume 169: Paris, France, citing National Archives.

“U.S. Passport Applications 1795-1925,” database, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 5 Feb 2017), entry for Marie H. Donaldson, Volume 169: Paris, France, citing National Archives.

In the 1930 census Charles and Lizzie had settled in Natrona Heights, a township not far from Tarentum. They shared their $30,000  home with Charles’s nephew, John Lee Nichols (1890-1967), the youngest son of John Mathews Nichols. Thirty-nine-year-old John Lee, a WWI Veteran, must have sought help from his uncle who had connections.

1930 U.S. census, Allegheny co., PA, pop sch.,Harrison, ED 0622, p.g10B, dwelling 220, family 228, Nichols, Chas. K; digital images, Ancestry.com.

1930 U.S. census, Allegheny co., PA, pop sch.,Harrison, ED 0622, p.g10B, dwelling 220, family 228, Nichols, Chas. K; digital images, Ancestry.com.

John found a job as a yardmaster at a Steel Mill. How long he stayed with his uncle is unknown. Charles and Lizzie also opened their home  during 1930 to her 76-year-old brother, John Carney.[19]

I found a second link between the two brothers, Charles Knerr Nichols and John Mathews Nichols and their families. This one would please my mother.  She grew up knowing very little about the Nichols family and often wondered if they lost contact with one another. My mother only recalls  frequent visits to her grandmother, Mabel Nichols Hyde (1888-1954), and Mabel’s younger brother, John Lee Nichols (Uncle Johnnie). Did Mabel ever visit her Uncle Charles, or did he visit his brother and family in Omaha? When Mabel’s only son, John F. Hyde Jr. married Anna Jane Beaton in June 1935, Charles and Lizzie Nichols must have received an invitation to the wedding. I can say this with certainty because my grandmother, Anna Jane, noted a generous gift from Charles and Lizzie in her wedding gift registry.

Wedding gift registry for Anna Jane Beaton and John F. Hyde from Charles and Lizzie Nichols.

Mr. and Mrs Chas. Nichols 927 Freeport Rd, Tarentum Penns. – 50 pieces of Franciscan china July 20, 1935. Wedding gift registry for Anna Jane Beaton and John F. Hyde Jr.

 

 

franciscan_china_yellow

They sent a 50-piece set of Franciscan ware. I wonder if this is the colorful Franciscan china that I remember Grams setting on her table when I visited her? As I wrote this article it occurred to me that I have 7 pieces of brightly colored Franciscan ware I inherited from Grams.  It would be rather fitting if these are the same pieces Charles and Lizzie gave to my grandparents. ceramic-mugs

 

 

 

nichols_helena_pa_addressbk_2

Reviewing all of the documents I received I recalled an address book that belonged to Helena May Nichols. She started writing in the book prior to her marriage as it lists her maiden name.

 

 

 

 

Addresses: Fred [Nichols] 5417 N. 16th [Omaha, NE]; John [ Mathew Nichols] 1402 Jaynes St. Hyde [Dr. John F and Mabel Nichols Hyde] 3227 Lafayette [Omaha, NE]

Addresses: Fred [Nichols] 5417 N. 16th [Omaha, NE];
John [ Mathew Nichols] 1402 Jaynes St.
Hyde [Dr. John F and Mabel Nichols Hyde] 3227 Lafayette [Omaha, NE]

Helena noted the address for her Uncle John Nichols, his son Fred, and for Mabel Nichols and Dr. John F. Hyde. The address for Mabel and John matches the U.S. 1920 census record.

 

 

 

The Later Years

In 1940 Charles and Lizzie no longer lived in their own home.  They moved in with their son-in-law Charles Lefkowitz, daughter Helena Nichols Lefkowitz,  three grandchildren, and two maids, at 927 Freeport Road in Harrison, PA.[20] The 1940 U.S. census noted that in 1935 Charles and Lizzie lived in Los Angeles, CA. When did they move to CA? How long did they live there? Did they move back to PA to be with family because of poor health? The entire family moved again in 1949 to nearby New Kensington. Perhaps they required a larger house?

1940 U.S. census, Allegheny Co., PA, pop sch. Harrison, ED 2-216, p 5A, house 927, Nichols, Charles; digital images, Ancestry.com

1940 U.S. census, Allegheny Co., PA, pop sch. Harrison, ED 2-216, p 5A, house 927, Nichols, Charles; digital images, Ancestry.com

One of the newspaper articles I received in the package of photos described Charles’s and Lizzie’s 60th wedding anniversary in 1950. The couple celebrated at the home of their daughter Helena.  One-hundred-twenty-five guests from Ohio and Pennsylvania joined the couple for their Diamond anniversary.[21] I wish I had a list of all the guests who attended.

“Mr. and Mrs. C.K. Nichols Diamond Wedding,” (Pittsburgh) The Pittsburgh Press, 2 Aug 1950, p14.

“Mr. and Mrs. C.K. Nichols Diamond Wedding,” (Pittsburgh) The Pittsburgh Press, 2 Aug 1950, p14.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sadly, three months after the celebration Charles died from a heart attack on October 30, 1951 at age 86.[22] Lizzie passed away three years after Charles in July 1955, also due to heart problems.[23] They are both buried at Mount Airy Cemetery in Natrona Heights, Pennsylvania.

Did you notice how many times the #3 appeared in Charles’s life?

As I continue to post pictures from this family I hope that a reader will recognize some of the unidentified faces. Fortunately, I have one more labeled picture to present in the next article and speculation about two other images.


[1] Walker, Peter. “George Holyer (1810‐c1890).”  pdf (2011): n. pag. Web. 23 Mar. 2017.
[2] “Cute Young Woman Wearing a Plume Hat in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.” The  Cabinet Card Gallery. https://cabinetcardgallery.wordpress.com,  13 December 2016.
[3] 1880 U.S. census, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, population schedule, Saint Clair, Enumeration District 204, p. 75C, dwelling 33, family 33, Nichols, Thomas A; digital images, Ancestry.com (http://ancestry.com: accessed 22 Feb 2017); from National Archives microfilm publication  1255192, roll 1192.
[4] First United Church (formerly First Methodist Episcopal Church) (Pottsville, Pennsylvnaia). Marriage Book. Parish Rectory, Pottsville.
[5] “Married.” The Plain Speaker [Hazleton, Pennsylvania]. 4 July 1890. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Feb. 2017. http://www.newspapers.com.
[6]Compiled Service Record, Thomas A. Nichols, Lt, 9th  Regiment, Co. K,  PA Cavalry (92nd Volunteers); Carded Records, Volunteer Organizations, Civil War; Records of the Adjutant General’s Office 1780’s-1917, National Archives, Washinton, D.C.
[7] 1900 U.S. census, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, population schedule, Allegheny, Enumeration District 75,p. 6B, dwelling 104, family 112, Nichols, Charles; digital images, Ancestry.com (http://ancestry.com : accessed 17 Feb 2017); from National Archives microfilm publication 1241496, roll 1496.
[8] 1900 U.S. census, Franklin County, PA, population schedule, Greene Township, Enumeration District 42, p13B, line 86, Nichols, Howard R; digital images, Ancestry.com (http://ancestry.com : accessed 17 Feb 2017); from National Archives microfilm publication 1241412, roll 1412.
[9] “Historic Pennsylvania Church and Town Records,” database, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 20 Feb 2017, entry for Helena Nichols, Baptism, First United Methodist Church, 1 April 1900, citing “Historical Society of PA; Philadelphia.”
[10] “Historic Pennsylvania Church and Town Records,” database, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 20 Feb 2017, entry for Charles and Lizzie Nichols, Baptism,First United Methodit Church, 8 July 1900, citing “Historical Society of PA; Philadelphia.”
[11] “Historic Pennsylvania Church and Town Records,” database, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 20 Feb 2017, entry for William Wallace Youngson, Pastoral
[12] “Termperance At Valley Camp.” The Pittsburgh Press [Pennsylvania]. 22 Jul 1898. Newspapers.com. Web. 16 Feb 2017. (http://www.newspapers.com)
[13] “To Build $500,00 Plant West Penn Steel Will Let Contracts Tomorrow.” The Philadelphia Inquirer.[Pennsylvania]. 17 Jan 1909. Newspapers.com. Web. 16 Feb 2017. (http://www.newspapers.com)
[14] 1910 census, Alegheny County, Pennsylvania, population schedule, Tarentum, Enumeration District 0246, p10B, dwelling 200, family 214, Nichols, Charles; digital images, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 16 Feb 2017); from National Archives microfilm publication 1375310, oll T624_1297.
[15] “Employees in Allegheny Steel Plant Against Strike.” Pittsburgh Daily Post [Pennsylvania]. 21 Sep 1919. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Feb 2017.(http://www.newspapers.com)
[16] 1920 census, Alegheny County, Pennsylvania, population schedule, Tarentum, Enumeration District 0831, p5A, dwelling 85, family 103, Nichols, Charles; digital images, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 16 Feb 2017); from National Archives, roll T625_1529.
[17] “Steel Man Promoted.” The Pittsburgh Press {Pennsylvania]. 11 Feb 1921. Page 9. Newspapers.com. Web. 15 Feb 2017. (http://www.newspapers.com)
[18] “U.S. Passport Applications 1795-1925,” database, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com  : accessed 5 Feb 2017), entry for Marie H. Donaldson, Volume 169: Paris, France, citing National Archives.
[19] 1930 census, Alegheny County, Pennsylvania, population schedule, Harrison, Enumeration District 0622, p10B, dwelling 220, family 228, Nichols, Charles; digital images, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 16 Feb 2017); from National Archives,microfilm 2341698 .
[20] 1940 census, Alegheny County, Pennsylvania, population schedule, Harrison, Enumeration District 2-216, p5A, dwelling 220, family 228, Nichols, Charles; digital images, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 16 Feb 2017); from National Archives,roll T627_3405.
[21] “Mr. and Mrs. C.K. Nichols Diamond Wedding,” (Pittsburgh) The Pittsburgh Press, 2 Aug 1950, p14.
[22] “Pennsylvania Death Certificates 1906-1964.” database, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 4 Feb 1017), entry for Charles K Nichols, Certificate Number Range: 087751-090300, citing Pennsylvania Historic and Museum Commission;PA, USA.
[23] “Pennsylvania Death Certificates 1906-1964.” database, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 4 Feb 1017), entry for Elizabeth B Nichols, Certificate Number Range: 087751-090300, citing Pennsylvania Historic and Museum Commission;PA, USA.

 

THOMAS ACKLEY NICHOLS
Name: Thomas Ackley Nichols
Parents: Matthias Nichols and
Sarah [Ackley?]
Spouse: wife #1 Helena Knerr, wife #2 Lillian Bull
Children: #1 John Mathews Nichols m. Mary Nelson;   Bertha Virginia Nichols m. Warren Gore Donaldson; Charles Knerr Nichols m. Elizabeth Bell Carney                                                                                                                                                                  #2Mary Watson Nichols Dietsche[later Ditchey], Florence Ackley Nichols Snyder, Howard Ransloe Nichols
Relationship to Kendra: 3x Great-grandfather

  1. Thomas Ackley Nichols
  2. John Mathews Nichols
  3. Mabel Elvina Nichols Hyde
  4. John Fay Hyde
  5. Jean Hyde Hopp Eichorn
  6. Kendra Hopp Schmidt

© 2017 copyright Kendra Hopp Schmidt. All rights reserved.

 

Posted in Biographies, My Family Ancestry, Photographs | Tagged , , | 8 Comments

OLD PHOTOGRAPHS SERENDIPITY & COUSIN CONNECTIONS

nichols_photos_mixed4

Nichols family photos and documents.

Old photographs with unnamed faces gaze at me asking to be identified and treasured. Labeled photographs ask for their story to be revealed and shared. I’m fortunate that several of my ancestors saved and passed on so many pictures. However, there are other family lines with gaping holes where there should be smiling faces. What happened to their family photos? According to Maureen Taylor, The Photo Detective,“Photos aren’t inherited in a direct line, most times they pass to a relative interested in preserving them. When that doesn’t happen pictures go missing, get destroyed or are sold.”[1]

Using serendipity, cousin connections, and blogging, I’ve managed to fill in some of the missing faces. Taking inspiration from Cathy Meder-Dempsey’s blog, Opening Doors in Brick Walls, and her articles about Old Photographs Saved From Trash Can, I decided to write a series of posts about discovered photographs.

THE FIRST BIG DISCOVERY

His pale somber eyes gaze at me from the computer screen. Unruly dark hair pokes out behind his pronounced ear lobes. A full mustache drapes over his lips and a slightly graying goatee hides his chin. Although the photograph depicts only a head and shoulder view, he appears slender.  So, this is what you look like Thomas Ackley Nichols? I’d scoured the internet for months looking for his portrait. Serendipity struck on the day I published my first blog about Thomas A. Nichols when I found his photograph on a “defunct” website. You can read more about his story here.

nichols_thomas_3photos

Adjutant Thomas Ackley Nichols, 9th PA Cavalry photos taken about 1864

Cousin connections and blogging led me to two additional photographs of Thomas.  I think the original photograph is the center image and the two identical photographs are copies and reverse images. Although Thomas is not wearing a hat nor can we see a belt buckle, his buttons on the first and last photo are reversed.

  1.  A third cousin read my blog and shared the  photograph of Thomas on the left.  He also emailed me images of Thomas’s second wife (Lillian Bull) and their three children.
  2.  A distant collateral cousin connected with me through ancestry.com; we share a 7x great-grandfather. She generously sent me a collection of Nichols’s family photographs, including the photograph of Thomas on the right.

Some of the photographs in the Nichols collection are labeled, unfortunately, others are not. Prior to receiving the images,  I had very few photos of Thomas and his extended family. He had two wives, six children, and fifteen grandchildren, so my hope is that someone among his descendants is interested in family history and can identify the mystery pictures. I look forward to introducing additional members of the Nichols family and comparing family resemblances.


 

Genealogy Sketch

THOMAS ACKLEY NICHOLS
Name: Thomas Ackley Nichols
Parents: Matthias Nichols and
Sarah [Ackley?]
Spouse: wife #1 Helena Knerr, wife #2 Lillian Bull
Children: #1 John Mathews Nichols, Bertha Virginia Nichols Donaldson, Charles Knerr Nichols                                                                                                                                                            #2 Mary Watson Nichols Dietsche[later Ditchey], Florence Ackley Nichols Snyder, Howard Ransloe Nichols
Relationship to Kendra: 3x Great-grandfather

  1. Thomas Ackley Nichols
  2. John Mathews Nichols
  3. Mabel Elvina Nichols Hyde
  4. John Fay Hyde
  5. Jean Hyde Hopp Eichorn
  6. Kendra Hopp Schmidt

© 2017 copyright Kendra Hopp Schmidt. All rights reserved.

[1] Taylor, Maureen, “A Mystery Photo from the Big Easy,” The Client Files (https://maureentaylor.com/mystery-photo-big-easy/?mc_cid=f8a8de703d&mc_eid=670c5a87f4 : accessed 10 February 2017.

Posted in My Family Ancestry, Photographs | Tagged , , | 7 Comments

REVOLUTIONARY WAR PATRIOTS- HYDE ANCESTORS- STURBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS – PART IV

Spirit of "76 By Archibald Willard, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=499045

Spirit of “76 By Archibald Willard, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=499045

The life given us, by nature is short; but the memory of a well-spent life is eternal.”  – Marcus Tullius Cicero

What an ideal way to learn Revolutionary War American history! First you locate the pension file for your ancestor and read his handwritten account of his experiences. Second, you travel to the locations where he served while listening to the audiobook  “1776” by David McCullough.

Although my initial research focused just on my 4th great-grandfather, Joshua Hyde, it soon expanded to include his father and three brothers. Like many New England farming villages during the Revolutionary War the able-bodied men of Sturbridge, Massachusetts dutifully defended their liberty by joining the local militia. My 5x great-grandfather, Benjamin Hyde, and four of his sons served for intermittent periods between 1775-1783. They marched from Massachusetts to Rhode Island, New Jersey, New York and Canada.  Significant battles and events they witnessed include: the Battle of Bunker Hill; Battle of Trenton; Battle of Ticonderoga; surrender of General Burgoyne; the defection of Benedict Arnold. During the seven years the Hyde men served only one lost his life and only one suffered a musket ball wound.

At the beginning of the Revolutionary War the colonies relied on the militia as a significant part of their defense. The militia had a long-standing tradition in the colonies as a safeguard to hostile threats. “The first militia units can be traced to Salem, Massachusetts in 1630.”[1] Males between sixteen and sixty, except for clergy, college students and slaves, were required to serve. Most of these men were farmers like the Hyde family or tradesmen and general laborers. They supported the rebellion but weren’t willing to leave their farms and professions for long periods of time.[2] Ten o’clock a.m. on the first Monday morning of December 1774, the  “Alarm Men” of Sturbridge gathered on the Common.  Almost every man over the age of sixteen, some 60 and some more than 70 years old, marched in military form into the Church. There were 103 men ready to defend their freedom. Every man needed to be accounted for and informed that if they were able to furnish themselves with arms and ammunition they should be prepared for action.[3] By the end of the war, 239 men from Sturbridge fought in the Revolutionary War.[4]

The militia was citizen soldiers with minimal training and limited equipment. When the Hydes showed up for duty they wore their own clothes; the militia did not receive uniforms. Perhaps the Hydes wore the typical “American hunting shirt”, made famous in the Revolutionary War. “It was generally made of homespun linen and cut in a long overshirt or wraparound style. It had rows of fringe around the edges and fit loosely so the wearer could move easily….Aside from hunting shirts, the militia usually wore homespun wool coats in a variety of colors and patterns, waistcoats, breeches, and stockings.” [5]

Soldiers in Uniform, Verger, Jean Baptiste Antoine de (creator). Prints,Drawings, and Watercolors from the Anne S.K. Brown Military Collection, Brown Digital Repository. Original Watercolor of African American Soldier of the Rhode Island Regiment, and three other soldiers in American Uniform.

Soldiers in Uniform, Verger, Jean Baptiste Antoine de (creator). Prints,Drawings, and Watercolors from the Anne S.K. Brown Military Collection, Brown Digital Repository. Original Watercolor of African-American Soldier of the Rhode Island Regiment, and three other soldiers in American Uniform.

The militia supplied themselves with  “enough ammunition, food, water, and other items of comfort (blanket, extra clothing etc.) for at least one day’s service.”[6]  Based on the Revolutionary War Muster Rolls for Massachusetts, the Hyde men always served for periods longer than one day.

Soldiers were officially authorized to receive daily rations to include bread (often hardtack), dry beans, meat, peas, and a “gill of rum or beer” (gill of rum is a half a pint).  Militia supplied their own food. Supplies often ran short so soldiers and militia relied on food brought from home, wild foods they gathered, hunted game, or ‘liberated food’. “One sergeant recorded that when his patrol happened upon a sheep and two large turkeys ‘not being able to give the Countersign,’ they were ‘tryd by fire and executed by the Whole Division of the free Booters.”[7] Although the militia had the reputation of not being as prepared as the continental soldiers, nor as disciplined, and prone to a “fondness for plunder”,[8] I prefer to think the Hyde men showed more restraint.

COLONIAL MILITIAMAN EQUIPMENT[9]

Colonial Militiamen, image courtesy of National Park Service, U.S. Dept of Interior, Minute Man National Park, Concord, MA.

Colonial Militiamen, image courtesy of National Park Service, U.S. Dept of Interior, Minute Man National Park, Concord, MA.

  • KNAPSACK: 20 lbs –Knapsack usually made from linen or canvas. It contained food, clothing, blanket.
  • MUSKET: 10 lbs – A trained soldier can load and fire three times per minute
  • CARTRIDGE BOX: 10 lbs – ammunition
  • SOCKET BAYONET: 1 lb – “A special blade that fits onto the end of the musket for hand-to-hand combat.Because of the socket’s design, the musket can still be fired when the bayonet is “fixed”.”
  • CANTEEN: 2 lbs – water
  • ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT: “A militia rifleman carried his rifle, knife, tomahawk a light ax, water bottle, a powderhorn for his black powder, and a hunting pouch that held other shooting supplies. Sometimes a patch knife, used to cut a patch of cloth, and a loading block, which held patched bullets enabling the rifleman to load quicker, were attached to the strap of the hunting pouch. In addition, a charger measured the amount of powder to put into the rifle when loading.”[10]
  • An essential piece of equipment, a blanket, served multiple purposes. It provided comfort and warmth from the elements. It functioned as an overcoat or a tent if the soldier lacked one.  Soldiers usually received blankets as part of their kit, the militia provided their own.[11]

HYDE MILITIAMEN AND SOLDIERS

JOHN HYDE [b. July 12 1750 – d. April 10, 1808]

The first Hyde family member enlisted in April 1775. Twenty-four-year-old John, the eldest living son, served as a private for eight months in Captain Adam Martin’s Company, Colonel Ebenezer Learned’s Massachusetts Regiment which participated in the Battle of Bunker Hill. In 1776 he re-enlisted again in the Massachusetts militia and served as a sergeant for one year under Major Sprout and fought in the Battle of Trenton. Early in 1777 John enlisted as a private in Captain Timothy Newell’s Massachusetts Company and was at the Battle of Saratoga where  the Colonialists captured British General Burgoyne. During the battle John suffered a musket ball wound to the head. He recovered and re-enlisted in 1778 and served five months at Whitehall, New York.

A testimonial to John’s service written in 1838 by his daughter Betsy Hyde Mason briefly describes his assignments and injury.

“…heard the said Hyde sundry times relate the tours of service performed by him in the Revolutionary War and I distinctly recollect hearing him say that he performed four tours of duty as a soldier in said war – to wit – a tour in 1775 at Roxbury, a tour in 1776 at and near New York of one year, a tour at the North in 1777 at the capture of Burgoyne and also a tour at Whitehall in 1778 of five months, and I have also heard the said Hyde say that in some of the earlier tours he was a Sergeant in the army and performed that duty and some of the later tours was  a commissioned officer and particularly that at Whitehall he was a Lieut. And I recollect that during his life time I saw his commission as Lieut. I also remember his saying that while in said service he was offered a Captain Commission but refused it. I have heard him converse with some of the soldiers who were out with him in the service & particularly a Mr. Capen who then resided in Belchertown Mass & was formerly of Sturbridge.  They conversed together respecting the Battle at the taking of Burgoyne. They were both in the battle in the same company, my father was wounded in that battle a musket ball struck the side of his head taking off the skin from his temple. The scar of it always remained there till his death. I heard Mr Capen say in those conversations that he saw my father fall when the ball struck him & thought he was dead…My father said he served at one time under Col Seabbard and that in some of his tours under Capt Lyman and that he was in thirteen engagements. ”[12]
Surrender of General Burgoyne courtesy of https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Surrender_of_General_Burgoyne

Surrender of General Burgoyne courtesy wikipedia.

Joshua Hyde also wrote a testimony for John’s pension application which provides more details.

“I Joshua Hyde of Sturbridge in the county of Worcester and Commonwealth of Massachusetts aged seventy six years testify and say that my brother John Hyde who was ten years older than myself in the month of April in the year seventeen hundred seventy five while living with me in my fathers family in said Sturbridge entered the service of the Revolutionary War for the term of eight months as a private and a volunteer in a militia company commanded by Capt Allen Martin and Lieut Benjamin Felton both of said Sturbridge in a Regiment commanded by Col Samuel of Oxford in said Worcester County, and marched with said company to Roxbury and Boston where he served out said tour of duty. And at the expiration of said term of service he enlisted for one year and served as a sergeant as I understood in a regiment of which Major Sprout was Major. The other officers I do not recollect. He marched with said regiment from Boston to New York and performed said term of one year in said regiment in the continental service in the States of New York, New Jersey. He was I have often heard him tell at Trenton at the capture of the Missions on the twenty fifth day of December in the year seventeen hundred & seventy six Christmas Day.”

[The Battle of Trenton was a small but pivotal battle during the American Revolutionary War which took place on the morning of December 26, 1776, in Trenton, New Jersey. After General George Washington’s crossing of the Delaware River north of Trenton the previous night, Washington led the main body of the Continental Army against Hessian soldiers garrisoned at Trenton. After a brief battle, nearly the entire Hessian force was captured, with negligible losses to the Americans. The battle significantly boosted the Continental Army’s flagging morale, and inspired re-enlistments.][13]
Battle of Trenton Published by U.S. Government Printing Office; painting by Hugh Charles McBarron, Jr. (1902-1992) - U.S. Army Center of Military History (Original uploaded on en.wikipedia (transferred to commons by Matanya), Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=14583328

Battle of Trenton Published by U.S. Government Printing Office; painting by Hugh Charles McBarron, Jr. (1902-1992) – U.S. Army Center of Military History (Original uploaded on en.wikipedia (transferred to commons by Matanya), Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=14583328

“While I was at work with my said brother in said Sturbridge getting hay for my father in the year seventeen hundred seventy seven Capt Timothy Newell of said Sturbridge who commanded a Militia company sent to my said brother to notify him that he was drafted to go into the service in Revolutionary War and for the term of three months to the northward and was at the taking of Burgoyne as I have after heard him say. And at the expiration of said term of three months he returned home with the said company & came to my fathers house. “[14]

After the war John returned to Sturbridge, Massachusetts. He married Miss Olive Bascomb of Stafford, Connecticut, on December 16, 1779. All eight of their children were born in Sturbridge and eventually the Hyde’s relocated to Belchertown, MA.  John died in 1808 at age 57. He is buried in Abington Cemetery, CT.

Service Record

  • Rank: Private –  Enlisted April 1775- August 1, 1775 – served eight months
  • Served under Captain Adam Martin’s Company, Continental Fourth Regiment of Foot, commanded by Col. Ebenezer Learned. Was in the Battle of Bunker Hill.
  • Rank- Sergeant – 1776 – served one year with MA troops under Major Sprout. Was in the Battle of Trenton.
  • Rank – Sergeant – Aug 16, 1777- Nov 30, 1777 – Company drafted to serve with the Northern army until Nov 30, 1777. Served 3 months  Captain Timothy Newell’s MA company and was at the capture of Burgoyne where he was struck by a musket ball in the temple and wounded.
  • Rank – Lieutenant – Enlisted 1778 and served 5 months and was at Whitehall.[15]

ABIJAH HYDE [b. June 8, 1754 – d. About 1788 in Canada]

The second son to heed the call to arms, Abijah, enlisted at age 20 on May 1, 1775. He served under Captain Sylvanus Walker’s company and Captain Coburn’s company.  His first assignment was to Colonel Timothy Danielson’s 8th Massachusetts Regiment which was later consolidated with Colonel Ebenezer Learned’s Regiment in December 1775. Two and half years after he joined, Abijah died of smallpox in Canada. His exact death date and burial site are unknown. [16]

Abijah "Hide" Hyde - Muster Roll MA, Captain Sylvanus Walker's Co. 1775 - courtesy of www.familysearch.org.

Abijah “Hide” Hyde – Muster Roll MA, Captain Sylvanus Walker’s Co. 1775 – courtesy of www.familysearch.org.

  • Service Record
  • Rank:  Private – Enlisted May 1, 1775
  • Served under Captain Sylvanus Walker’s Company and Captain Coburn’s company, Col. Timothy Danielson’s Regt. Served two and a half years. Died of Small Pox in Canada.[17]

BENJAMIN HYDE  [b.April 11, 1723- d. November 28, 1797]

On September 4, 1776, fifty-three-year-old Benjamin Hyde joined his sons, neighbors and friends and began his first stint in the Massachusetts Militia. He first marched from Sturbridge, MA to Dorchester Heights and Boston, a total of 72 miles.  By the end of November 1776, Benjamin returned to the farm; the militia allowed him 4 days travel, which indicates he walked about 18 miles per day.[18] At the beginning of July 1777 the militia called him out again. When harvest season arrived in September Benjamin returned home for three months and his youngest son, 16-year-old Joshua, served as his substitute.[19]


In a statement made for the pension file of Jacob Allen, Joshua testifies serving as a substitute for his father.

“I Joshua Hyde of Sturbridge in said County do testify and say that I served in the Massachusetts Militia, in 1777. My father Benjamin Hyde enlisted for 6 months under Capt Cheney and was in Capt Joseph Sibley’s company. After he had served from two to three months my father returned and I took his place and served from three to four months.”[20]

Benjamin "Hide" Hyde - Muster roll - Nov 1776 - marched 72 miles to Dorchester Heights. Courtesy of www.familysearch.org.

Benjamin “Hide” Hyde – Muster roll – Nov 1776 – marched 72 miles to Dorchester Heights. Courtesy of www.familysearch.org.

On December 1,  1777, Benjamin rejoined the ranks as a private and marched to Providence, Rhode Island where he remained until January 3, 1778. His next assignment closer to home didn’t include any travel time. He guarded the stores and magazines in nearby Springfield and Brookfield, MA from January-July 1778.[21] It appears that Benjamin had a respite from the militia for one year; no records show that he served in 1779. On July 22, 1780 Benjamin heeded the call to arms and returned to the militia. He marched 80 miles to Tiverton,Rhode Island. According to Google maps the route would take 22 hours on foot. Using the muster rolls for the Hyde men, they averaged about 18 miles/day.

Fort Barton, Tiverton,R.I.By Marcbela - Own work, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4439719

Fort Barton, Tiverton,R.I.By Marcbela – Own work, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4439719

Benjamin’s next tour of duty, from August-November 1781, took him the farthest from Sturbridge; Benjamin walked 140 miles to West Point, New York.[22]  Detailed on August 18, 1781, the soldiers were given 7 days travel; however, they didn’t arrive at West Point until August 31st. [23]

Sketch of West Point 1783, courtesy of Library of Congress.

Sketch of West Point 1783, courtesy of Library of Congress.

Assigned to Colonel Luke Drury’s regiment, Benjamin and his comrades guarded the garrison at West Point, a critical site on the Hudson River.  The Americans feared the British might seize the strategic area to separate New England from the rest of the colonies. While researching Colonel Drury’s regiment I found a website that lists historical documents for sale.  The Weekly Return for Colonel Drury’s Regiment for November 15, 1781 included the following tasks:

“Constant Fatigue at Gallows Hollow,” 16 on “Constitution Island,” 9 “Repairing Hut at New Windsor & Diging wells” 7 “Artifices Constantly Employed in Garison,” 4 “in the Sloop,” 3 “on Forage Guard,” 7 “Making Shingles,” 16 “In the Boats Service,” 3 “Station Guard East Side of the River,” 4 at “Robersons Farm,” 5 “chain fatigue” (i.e. the chain across the river from Constitution Island to West Point), and 14 “Constant Fatigue at the General.” [24]

Fatigue duty referred to military duty that did not require the use of arms; the militia may have been “…employed at work on fortifications, in surveys, in cutting roads.”[25]

Benjamin died in 1797 at age 74, “killed by a fall in his barn.”[26] He and his wife,Dorcas Dyer Hyde, are interred at the Old Burial Ground in Sturbridge, Massachusetts. The cemetery which dates to circa 1740  has many graves of Revolutionary War veterans.

Service Record

  • Rank: Private
  • Sept 4, 1776– November 28, 1776 Sturbridge, MA to Dorchester Heights, Boston, MA; Captain Benjamin Richardson’s Co. Col. Nicolas Pike’s Regt.
  • July 1, 1777 – December 8, 1777 Sturbridge, MA to Providence, R.I. Stationed at North Kingston.
  • December 29,  1777- January 3, 1778 Sturbridge, MA to Providence, R.I; Captain Joseph Sibley’s Co. Col. Danforth Keye’s Regt.
  • January 3, 1778 – July 1, 1778 Captain John Morgan’s Co, guard stores and magazines at Springfield and Brookfield.
  • July 22, 1780 – August 8, 1780 Sturbridge MA to Tiverton, R.I., Captain Abel Mason, Col Jacob Davis’s Regt.
  • August 18, 1781 – November 9, 1781 Sturbridge MA to West Point, N.Y. Captain Rueben Davis’ Co., Col. Luke Drury’s Regiment.  Detailed Aug 18 and arrived West Point August 31, 1781. [27]

OTHNIEL [b. July 12, 1752 – d. August 26, 1832]

The fourth Hyde, twenty-four-year-old Othniel, joined one month after his father but served for only two months, December 1776-January 1777.  Assigned to Captain Abel Mason’s Company, Colonel Jonathan Holman’s Regt, Othniel marched 52 miles in 3 days to Providence, R.I. and back home again.[28]

Othniel Hyde - MA Muster Roll Revolutionary War, December 1776-January 1777, Stationed Providence, RI. courtesy of www.familysearch.org.

Othniel Hyde – MA Muster Roll Revolutionary War, December 1776-January 1777, Stationed Providence, RI. courtesy of http://www.familysearch.org.

In 1779 Othniel married Rachel Streeter Rood. They settled in Brookfield, Massachusetts where Othniel farmed.  The couple named their first son after Othniel’s brother Abijah who died during the war. Othniel died in 1832, 4 years after his wife. His grave site in Vermont is unknown.

  • Service Record
  • Rank: Private  – December 10, 1776-January 20, 1777
  • Served under Captain Abel Mason’s Company, Colonel Jonathan Holman’s Regt. [29]

JOSHUA HYDE [b. December 12, 1762 – d. September 8, 1838]

In September 1777, the youngest Hyde joined the militia. Sixteen-year-old  Joshua traded his farm tools for a musket and served as a substitute for his 54-year-old father, Benjamin Hyde.  Perhaps Benjamin felt a need to return and supervise the fall harvest, or perhaps Joshua eagerly sought his turn to serve. His pension record recounts his experiences; I have added historical details to enhance his story. For more information about Joshua’s family and his life see earlier postings Part I, Part II, and Part III

I was born in the town of Sturbridge aforesaid on the twelfth day of December AD 1761. There is a register of my name in the town records of Sturbridge aforesaid. I was a resident of Sturbridge aforesaid at the time I was called into service, and except at short intervals to the present times. In the later part of Sept AD 1777 I went as a substitute for my father Benjamin Hyde of Sturbridge aforesaid to Rhode Island. I went from Sturbridge through Woodstock, Killingly, and East Greenwich and joined the army at North Kingston at Bissell’s Mills. Col Danforth Keyes Regt, Capt Joseph Sibley, Lieut Joseph Cheney. I went down to Point Judith to guard the shipping.”


[“During the American Revolution, the British controlled Narragansett Bay and raided and burned the farms on Point Judith and the surround areas in the late 1770s under Captain Wallace.”][30]

“I then returned to Providence the later part of November, staid [sic] from four to six weeks and was dismissed January 11, 1778. I performed about three months of service at above stated in General Spencer’s Expedition in the Massachusetts militia as a substitute for my father Benjamin Hyde. The second time that I was in the service I was in the guards at Brookfield Massachusetts. I enlisted the third or fourth day of January AD 1778 for the term of six months in the Massachusetts Militia. The Continental stores were deposited in a school house half a mile south of Chicopee River in Brookfield near Upham’s Mills. Captain [Gilbert] Speakman was Commissary agent, Solomon Barrister and Joshua Abbot were Sergeants. I was employed part of the time in picketing [standing duty at night] in the school house, the rest of the time on guard. I performed six months duty and was dismissed July 2nd 1778 the day that Mrs Spooner was hung at Worcester.”

[Who was Mrs. Spooner and what crime did she commit that warranted hanging?] Not long after I posted this on FB Genealogy Blogger, a fellow blogger informed me of the story about Mrs. Spooner. Bathsheba Ruggles Spooner was the first woman to be executed in the United States following the Declaration of Independence. The daughter of a prominent Colonial American Lawyer, justice, and military officer, Bathsheba Ruggles had an arranged marriage to a wealthy farmer, Joshua Spooner. She then became lovers with a young soldier from the Continental Army, Ezra Ross, and became pregnant. She enlisted the assistance of Ross and two others [British soldiers] to murder her husband. On the night of March 1, 1778, one of them beat Joshua Spooner to death and they put his body in the Spooner well. Bathsheba Spooner and the three men were soon arrested, tried for and convicted of Spooner’s murder and sentenced to death…After the four were executed, a post-mortem examination revealed that she was five months pregnant. Historians have pointed out that the trial and execution may have been hastened by Anti-loyalist sentiment.”[30a] 

Joshua remembered the day of the hanging fifty-four years later and even included it in his pension affidavit. His hometown of Sturbridge is located just nine miles from Brookfield where Mrs. Spooner and the three men committed the crime.

[While on duty protecting the Continental Stores, Joshua helped rescue a man who fell into the mill-pond. Daniel Upham, a fellow soldier, described the incident. “The public stores were kept within a few rods of my Father’s house. I remember that Joshua Hyde was there and did duty on guard, how long I do not know. I recollect that one Perkins got into the mill pond, and that Joshua Hyde swam into the mill pond and with the assistance of other got him out.” ][31]

“I enlisted in June 1778 to go to Rhode Island. I left Sturbridge on the sixth day of July marched through Oxford, Sutton, then to Providence and joined Col. Wade’s Regiment of Massachusetts Militia at Providence. Lt Col. Wood, Nelson was Major, Capt Samual Hammond’s company.

Marched to Barrington, Bristol, and again joined the Reg at Ticonderoga, crossed once on to Rhode Island about the first of Aug. The next day a storm commenced and lasted three days and three nights, the worst I ever knew. I was then at Butt’s fort, then went about 7 miles South to Old Dominion fort to blockade the British in that fort, staid there about 10 or 15 days while LaFayette was endeavoring to get the French to help us, but they not coming. Retreated to Butt’s Fort, and the British followed. I was in the Battle of Aquidneck with the Black Regt commanded by Col Greene.”

Fort Ticonderoga, View from South.

Fort Ticonderoga, View from South.

[In February 1778 the Governor of Rhode Island authorized and recruited black freemen, slaves, and mulattos as regular soldiers in the Continental Army.  Slaves were promised their freedom at war’s end.] [32]

“That night I march off the island [Aquidneck] to Tivertown[sic]. I was one of the last that march off and it was about day break when I got over.”

[‘On August 28, 1778, the American Forces began an orderly retreat but were soon pursued by the British. During the Battle of Rhode Island, the largest military engagement of the war within the former colony, Butts Hill Fort served as the American Headquarters. In the early morning hours of August 31, the last members of the American army left Aquidneck Island.’][33]

Battle of Rhode Island, Library of Congress Photographs and Prints

Battle of Rhode Island, Library of Congress Photographs and Prints

“Then march over Bristol Ferry to East Greenwich in the night. I was dismissed at Providence or East Greenwich on a furlough on account of sickness about a fortnight or three weeks before my time was out. I was not able to return but was paid to the end of the month of December 1778 making a term of six months.”

[Although Joshua didn’t elaborate in his pension record the complete story of the retreat,  George Davis describes it in “An Historical Sketch of Sturbridge”. “He [Joshua] was in the service during the most critical period of the Revolutionary contest. He was one of the corps commanded by Gen.Sullivan, who gained such distinguished credit in his masterly retreat in Rhode-Island, August 1778. Gifted with a very retentive memory, it may not be out of place to sketch some important particulars related by him [Joshua] with lively interest, and which are in accordance with historic facts. The retreat was under the cover of night, conducted with the utmost caution and stillness and effected by the break of day. This adroit movement was no less memorable than a signal victory. The object of Sullivan’s expedition was to expel the British from Rhode Island. The expected co-operation of the French troops failed. In consequence of this failure, it would have been rashness in the extreme, for Sullivan to have hazarded an engagement. Finding themselves in this perilous condition, many of Sullivan’s troops deserted. Desertion, of this sort, of inexperienced troops, was one of the severe trials to be encountered. The subject of our sketch [Joshua] was not composed of such materials….Mr Hyde was at West Point, at the defection of [Benedict] Arnold.][34]

“I enlisted again for a term of three months, at Sturbridge aforesaid in the Massachusetts Militia to go to Canada. I was mustered at Sturbridge, Mass. Capt Samuel Hammond’s Company, Lieut Corbin of Dudley and Lieut Sibley of Sutton. Marched through Springfield & Greenbush to Albany. I was on guard of about seven hundred Indians in a fort in Albany. Staid at Albany a few weeks and went to the flatts up on the Mohawk or North River. Here and in the vicinity I was on guard five or six weeks and was discharged one week before our time was out at the flatts or at Albany. I was on a detachment party most of the time and was not much of the time with any company or regiment. I served three months lacking one week. Silas Dunton of Sturbridge was in the same company and was warden to Capt Hammond.

Again in 1782 I marched to East Point as a substitute for Samuel Pike of Sturbridge but said Pike had lived most of the time in Brookfield in the county of Worcester aforesaid. I went away the later part of October or the first part of November, joined the Army at York Butts above [MS illegible] about the first of Nov. 1782. Col John Brooks Reg (7th Mass Reg), Maj Lemuel Prescot, Capt. Thorpe’s com, Lt. Lemuel Bussing. I helped build the York butts. Went down to White Plains to Pine Bridge some time in February 1783 and staid one fortnight. I here had my ankle put out and remained 10 or 15 days after my ankle was put out. Said Pike’s furlough was only for three months but he staid four months and being an orderly sergeant he was reduced to the ranks. I continued under the care of doctors till about the first of April and then being [MS illegible] I returned home. I had a discharge under the hand of Gen Lemuel Prescott about the last of March or the first of April, but I have lost it. While I was home Col [William] Stacy of New Salem having been a prisoner for years returned to camp and was Lt Col of our regt and was entitled to Rank. Col Brooks he did not take his rank and had returned home. Benjamin Jennings of Brookfield was a soldier in Col Jackson’s reg and I frequently saw him while at York Butt, and Joseph Fethergill a Corporal was of the same company and same [MS illegible]. Said Fethergill is now a resident of Pittsfield Mass.

Rev Michal Stone and Simon Draper Esq

I hereby relinquish any claim whatsoever to a pension or annuity except the present and declare that my name is not on the pension call of the agency of the state.

Sworn and subscribed the day and year aforesaid  Nathaniel Paine Probate for the county of Worcester                         [Signed] Joshua Hyde

Signature of Joshua Hyde on his pension statement dated August 28,1832. Image courtesy of www.fold3.com

Signature of Joshua Hyde on his pension statement dated August 28,1832. Image courtesy of http://www.fold3.com

Sworn and subscribed to the twenty eight day of August AD 1832 Before me Herman Stebbins Justice Peace”[35]

 

  • Service Record
  • Rank: Private – September 1777 substituted for his father Benjamin
  • Enlisted June 26, 1778- January 1, 1779 -Rhode Island
  • January 1778-July 2, 1778 – Brookfield, Massachusetts; Captain, Samuel Lamb’s Co, Col Nathanial Wade; served on guard duty.
  • June 1778 – December 1778 – Providence, Rhode Island
  • September 1779 – November 1779- Albany, New York.
  • October 22, 1779-November 23, 1779, Regiment raised for 3 months service at Claverack N.Y; transferred to Continental Army. Distance 160 miles, 8 days home travel included.
  • November 1782- April 1783 – New York
  • Captain Hammond’s Company, Captain Samuel Lamb’s Company[36]

Joshua continued to serve in the Massachusetts Militia until the end of April 1783. Although the British surrendered at Yorktown, Virginia in October 1781, the war continued for another 18 months until the signing of the Treaty of Paris signed September 3, 1783.[37]  After his return to Sturbridge, Joshua became a successful farmer (see Joshua Hyde Part I), married, and raised his family.   He died at age 75, cause unknown, and is buried in the North Cemetery in Sturbridge, Massachusetts.


REVOLUTIONARY WAR PENSIONS

After the Revolutionary War pensions were awarded based on participation in the conflict. The first pension legislation occurred on August 26, 1776 to provide half-pay for officers and enlisted men who were disabled in the service and unable to earn a living. On May 15, 1778 another resolution benefited military officers who remained in the Continental service to the end of the war. Additional resolutions in 1789 and 1818 resulted in benefits for invalids and veterans. “The last and most liberal of the service-pension acts benefiting Revolutionary War veterans was passed on June 7, 1832. The act provided that every officer or enlisted man who had served at least 2 years in the Continental line or State troops, volunteers or militia, was eligible for a pension of full pay for life.”[38] Nearly three months after the resolution passed, Joshua Hyde filed his pension application.

The application process varied dependent upon the act under which the would-be pensioner applied. The process required the applicant to appear before a court of justice in the State of his or her residence and describe under oath a record of their service. A widow of a veteran had to provide information to include a marriage date and location. Supporting documentation might include property schedules, marriage records, and affidavits of witnesses. The local court certified these documents and forwarded them to the Secretary of War or the Commissioner of Pensions. The applicant later received notification if his request had been approved, rejected, or was pending. Semiannual payments were made through pension agents of the Federal Government in the States.[39]

During the months of July and August 1832, Joshua located six fellow militiamen with whom he’d served and sought their affidavits. He wrote affidavits for five men.  On September 7, 1832, the County Court of Worcester submitted his application. The certificate of pension approved on May 16, 1833 provided Joshua $72.56 annually.[40] Upon his death in 1838 the payments ceased. When Congress approved on July 29, 1848, “ An Act for the Relief of certain surviving Widows of Officers and Soldiers of the Revolutionary Army,” Joshua’s widow, Sally, applied for benefits.

Pension grant for Sally Fay Hyde, widow of Joshua Hyde, granted July 3, 1840. Image courtesy of www.fold3.com

Pension grant for Sally Fay Hyde, widow of Joshua Hyde, granted July 3, 1840. Image courtesy of http://www.fold3.com

In August 1848 she submitted her application assisted by her son, Benjamin Dwight Hyde, an attorney.  They waited almost a year in vain for approval or rejection. After no response they wrote another letter to the Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts seeking resolution.  Due to “age and bodily infirmity the seventy-four-year-old widow could not personally appear before the court, so a concession was made to allow for “taking said Declaration out of Court.[41]  Approval granted on July 3, 1840 authorized Sally to receive $72.56 annually, the same amount her husband had received. For nine months Sally reaped the benefits. She died on June 15, 1850, her cause of death pleurisy (lung inflammation). [42] Sally lies next to Joshua in the North Cemetery in Sturbridge, Massachusetts.

Unlike Joshua, his brother John did not personally benefit from a pension. However, John’s widow received compensation. An Act of Congress in July 1836 provided that a widow of any veteran who fulfilled the requirements of the act of June 7, 1832 could apply for a pension if she had married the veteran before the last period of his service. [43] Unfortunately for John widow, Olive Bascom Hyde,  his last period of service in 1778 occurred before their marriage. Olive could not receive benefits from the act of 1836.An additional act of Congress on July 7, 1838 granted 5-year pensions to widows whose marriages took place before January 1, 1794.[44]  John and Olive married October 25, 1779, thus Olive qualified; she promptly applied for a pension in August 1838.

Olive Hyde, widow of John Hyde, pension grant. Note death date for John is incorrect. Image courtesy of www.fold3.com.

Olive Hyde, widow of John Hyde, pension grant. Note death date for John is incorrect. Image courtesy of http://www.fold3.com.

More than a year later in October 1839, the “gravely ill” widow of 83 still awaited confirmation of her pension. Finally on May 7, 1840 Olive received an annual pension of $26.66. She received $119.99 in arrears issued on May 7, 1840.[45] Three months later Olive died.  She is buried near her husband John in Abington Cemetery, Connecticut.

Coincidentally,when I began writing this article I received the journal from an aunt who attended a workshop on the American Revolution in July 1991.  Aimee Thompson cultivated her passion for learning,  history, and travel into a successful teaching career both stateside and abroad. She expresses quite eloquently the sentiments I embrace regarding my Revolutionary War ancestors.

“As I write this final entry at the conclusion of my week-long journey back into the past, I shall leave Valley Forge tomorrow with head held high, increased pride in my heart to be an American, and a deepened gratitude to those highly dedicated, self-sacrificing,, and determined Patriots who forged the United States of America from thirteen original British Colonies.”[46]

Genealogy Sketch

Name: Joshua Hyde 1762-1838
Parents: Benjamin Hyde 1723-1797 and
Dorcas Dyer 1726-1787
Spouse: Sarah “Sally” Fay Hyde 1775-1850
Children:

  1. Augusta Hyde, b. 31 Oct 1795, Sturbridge, MA, d. 17 Sep 1872, Sturbridge, MA.
  2. Betsy Hastings Hyde, b. 28 Mar 1798, d. 1880, Sturbridge, MA.
  3. Charlotte Hyde, b. 26 Sep 1800, Sturbridge, MA, d. 16 Mar 1870, Brookfield, MA
  4. Benjamin Dwight Hyde, b. 12 Dec 1762, Sturbridge, MA, d. 2 Nov 1869, Sturbridge, MA
  5. Emory Hyde, b. 21 Feb 1805, Sturbridge, MA, d. 31 Oct 1830, Sturbridge, MA
  6. Frederick Baxter Hyde, b. 15 Jul 1808, Sturbridge, MA, d. 25 Feb 1852, Norwalk, Huron, Ohio
  7. George Baxter Hyde, b. 20 Mar 1811, Sturbridge, MA, d. 8 Jul 1889, Boston, MA
  8. Fitz Henry Hyde, b. 2 Jun 1814, Sturbridge, MA, d. 23 Oct 1833, Sturbridge, MA
  9. John Fay Hyde, b. 5, Aug 1817, Sturbridge, MA, d. 3 Sep 1889, Buda, Bureau, IL

Relationship to Kendra: 4th great-grandfather

  1. Joshua Hyde 1762-1838
  2. John Fay Hyde 1817-1889
  3. Frederick Albert Hyde 1851-1926
  4. John Fay Hyde 1885-1950
  5. John Frederick Hyde 1911-1980
  6. Jean Hyde Hopp Eichorn
  7. Kendra Hopp Schmidt

 

© 2017 copyright Kendra Hopp Schmidt. All rights reserved.


[1] Ronald L. Boucher. “The Colonial Militia as a Social Institution.” Anthology by the editors of Military affairs. Military Analysis of the Revolutionary War.  New York: KTO Press, 1977. p. 35, quoted in Larry Hart, “The Colonial Militia during the Revolutionary War”, digital images. (http://hartnation.com/the-colonial-militia-during-the-revolutionary-war/#_ftn19 : accessed 8 January 2017).
[2] Gerald Horton. “The Militia A Very Condensed Overview”, digital images. (https://www.hortonssarticles.org : accessed 8 November 2016).
[3]  Joseph S. Clark. “An Historical Sketch of Sturbridge, Massachusetts from Its Settlement to the Present Time“. (West Brookfield, Massachusetts: E. and L. Merriam, Printers 1838),  16; digital images, (http://www.archive.org : accessed 9 November 2016).
[4] Ibid, p.20.
[5] “Outfitting an American Revolutionary Soldier.”digital images, NCPedia (www.ncpedia.org : accessed 12 December 2016). Used with permission from Tar Heel Junior Historian 32, no. 1 (Fall 1992): 28–34, copyright NC Museum of History.
[6]Just the Essentials: Clothing and Equipment of Revolutionary War Soldiers.” Minute Man National Historical Park. National Park Service, U. S. Department of the Interior. 2009. http://www.nps.gov/mima/forteachers/upload/essentials.pdf(accessed November 29, 2016).
[7]Kyle R. Weaver, Diane B. Reed, Fred Lauver (Eds). 2004“Pennsylvania Trail of History Cookbook,” PA: Stackpole Books and Pennsylvana Historical and Museum Commission, quoted in “Feeding Revolutionary War Soldiers”, digital images. (https://pafoodways.omeka.net/exhibits/show/table/articles/feeding-revolutionary-war-sold : acessed 8 January 2017).
[8] Fleming, Thomas. “Militia and Continentals.” Journal of the American Revolution. N.p., 28 Aug. 2016. Web. 08 Jan. 2017.
[9] “Just the Essentials: Clothing and Equipment of Revolutionary War Soldiers.” Minute Man National Historical Park. National Park Service, U. S. Department of the Interior. 2009. http://www.nps.gov/mima/forteachers/upload/essentials.pdf(accessed November 29, 2016).
[10] “Outfitting an American Revolutionary Soldier.”digital images, NCPedia (www.ncpedia.org : accessed 12 December 2016). Used with permission from Tar Heel Junior Historian 32, no. 1 (Fall 1992): 28–34, copyright NC Museum of History.
[11] Ibid
[12] “Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land Warrant Application Files,” digital images, Fold3 (https://www.fold3.com : accessed 8 November 2016), entry for John Hyde; citing NARA microfilm publication compiled Service Records of Soldiers Who Served in the American Army During the Revolutinoary War, M804, Roll 1387.
[13] Wikipedia Contributors. “Battle of Trenton.” Wikipeida, The Free Encyclopedia. 6 Jan. 2017. Web. 6 Jan. 2017. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Trenton
[14] “Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land Warrant Application Files,” digital images, Fold3 (https://www.fold3.com : accessed 8 November 2016), entry for John Hyde; citing NARA microfilm publication compiled Service Records of Soldiers Who Served in the American Army During the Revolutinoary War, M804, Roll 1387.
[15]  “Compiled Service Records of Soldiers Who Served in the American Army During the Revolutionary War,” digital images, Fold3 (https://www.fold3.com : accessed 8 November 2016), entry for John Hyde; citing NARA microfilm publication compiled Service Records of Soldiers Who Served in the American Army During the Revolutinoary War, M881, Roll 0470.
[16] George Davis. “Historical Sketch of Sturbridge and Southbridge“. West Brookfield, Massachusetts: Power Press of O.S. Cooke and Co, 1856), 88; digital images, (https://www.archive.org : accessed 8 November 2016).
[17] Ibid
[18] “Massachusetts, Revolutionary War, Index Cards to Muster Rolls, 1775-1783,” images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3Q9M-CSQZ-C33F-H?cc=2548057&wc=QZZQ-MQW%3A1589088627 : 25 November 2015), > image 1612 of 2755; citing Massachusetts Archives, Boston.
[19] “Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land Warrant Application Files,”digital images, Fold3 (https://www.fold3.com : accessed 8 November 2016), entry for Joshua Hyde; citing NARA microfilm publication Case Files of Pension andBounty-Land Warrant Applications Based on Revolutionary War Service, M804, Roll 1388.
[20] “Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land Warrant Application Files,”digital images, Fold3 (https://www.fold3.com : accessed 5 January 2017), entry for Jacob Allen; citing NARA microfilm publication Case Files of Pension andBounty-Land Warrant Applications Based on Revolutionary War Service, M804, Roll 0037.
[21] “Massachusetts, Revolutionary War, Index Cards to Muster Rolls, 1775-1783,” images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-909-57909-94326-31?cc=2548057 : 25 November 2015), Herskill, Andrew – Hill, Amos > image 1622 of 2755; citing Massachusetts Archives, Boston.
[22] “Soldiers and Sailors of the Revolutionary War”. Boston, Massachusetts: Wright & Poetter Printing CO, 1900), 830; digital images, (https://wwwarchive.org : accessed 8 November 2016.)
[23] “Massachusetts, Revolutionary War, Index Cards to Muster Rolls, 1775-1783,” images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-909-57909-94326-31?cc=2548057 : 25 November 2015), Herskill, Andrew – Hill, Amos > image 1622 of 2755; citing Massachusetts Archives, Boston.
[24] “A Month After Yorktown, Colonel Drury’s Weekly Return for His Regiment at West Point Notes “Chain Fatigue”, http://www.abebooks.com (https://www.abebooks.com/servlet?BookDetailsPL?bi+10723273999 : accessed 10 January 2017).
[25] Wikipedia Contributors. “Fatigue duty.” Wikipeida, The Free Encyclopedia. 7 Jan. 2017. Web. 7 Jan. 2017. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatigue_duty).
[26] “Massachusetts, Town Vital Collections, 1620-1988,”digital images, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 6 January 2017), entry for Benjamin Hyde, Death Date 23 Nov 1797 Death Place, Sturbridge, Massachusetts.
[27] Soldiers and Sailors of the Revolutionary War. Boston, Massachusetts: Wright & Potter Printing CO, 1900), 830; digital images, (https://www.archive.org : accessed 8 November 2016.)
[28] “Massachusetts, Revolutionary War, Index Cards to Muster Rolls, 1775-1783,” images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-909-57909-88947-0?cc=2548057 : 25 November 2015), Herskill, Andrew – Hill, Amos > image 1724 of 2755; citing Massachusetts Archives, Boston.
[29] Soldiers and Sailors of the Revolutionary War. Boston, Massachusetts: Wright & Poetter Printing CO, 1900), 834; digital images, (https://wwwarchive.org : accessed 8 November 2016.)
[30] Wikipedia Contributors. “Point Judith, Rhode Island.” Wikipeida, The Free Encyclopedia. 5 Jan. 2017. Web. 5 Jan. 2017. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Point_Judith,_Rhode_Island
[30a]Wikipedia Contributors. “Bathsheba Spooner.” Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia; accessed 13 Jan 2017.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bathsheba_Spooner
[31] “Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land Warrant Application Files,”digital images, Fold3 (https://www.fold3.com : accessed 8 November 2016), entry for Joshua Hyde; citing NARA microfilm publication Case Files of Pension andBounty-Land Warrant Applications Based on Revolutionary War Service, M804, Roll 1388.
[32] “The 1st Rhode Island Regiment of the Continental Line.” www.americanrevolution.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Jan. 2017.
[33] Rhode Island Marine Archaeology Project, D. K. Abbass, Ph.D., “Butts Hill Fort, Portsmouth,” Rhode Tour, accessed January 8, 2017, http://rhodetour.org/items/show/50.
[34] George Davis. Historical Sketch of Sturbridge and Southbridge. West Brookfield, Massachusetts: Power Press of O.S. Cooke and Co, 1856), 93-94; digital images, (https://www.archive.org : accessed 8 November 2016).
[35] “Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land Warrant Application Files,”digital images, Fold3 (https://www.fold3.com : accessed 8 November 2016), entry for Joshua Hyde; citing NARA microfilm publication Case Files of Pension andBounty-Land Warrant Applications Based on Revolutionary War Service, M804, Roll 1388.
[36]“Compiled Service Records of Soldiers Who Served in the American Army During the Revolutionary War,” digital images, Fold3 (https://www.fold3.com : accessed 8 November 2016), entry for John Hyde; citing NARA microfilm publication compiled Service Records of Soldiers Who Served in the American Army During the Revolutinoary War, M804, Roll 1388.
[37] Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation. Washington’s Headquarters. New York: Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation, 1987.
[38] “Pensions Enacted by Congress for American Revolutionary War Veterans”, digital images. (https://www.freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com : accessed 8 November 2016).
[39] “Pensions Enacted by Congress for American Revolutionary War Veterans”, digital images. (https://www.freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com : accessed 8 November 2016).
[40] “Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land Warrant Application Files,”digital images, Fold3 (https://www.fold3.com : accessed 8 November 2016), entry for Joshua Hyde; citing NARA microfilm publication Case Files of Pension andBounty-Land Warrant Applications Based on Revolutionary War Service, M804, Roll 1388.
[41] “Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land Warrant Application Files,”digital images, Fold3 (https://www.fold3.com : accessed 8 November 2016), p.25  entry for Joshua Hyde; citing NARA microfilm publication Case Files of Pension andBounty-Land Warrant Applications Based on Revolutionary War Service, M804, Roll 1388.
[42] “Massachusetts, Death Records, 1841-1915, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 9 January 2017), entry for Sarah Hyde, 15 June 1850, Sturbridge, MA.
[43] Pensions Enacted by Congress for American Revolutionary War Veterans”, digital images. (https://www.freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com : accessed 8 November 2016).
[44] “Just the Essentials: Clothing and Equipment of Revolutionary War Soldiers.” Minute Man National Historical Park. National Park Service, U. S. Department of the Interior. 2009. http://www.nps.gov/mima/forteachers/upload/essentials.pdf(accessed November 29, 2016).
[45]“Compiled Service Records of Soldiers Who Served in the American Army During the Revolutionary War,” digital images, Fold3 (https://www.fold3.com : accessed 8 November 2016), entry for John Hyde; citing NARA microfilm publication compiled Service Records of Soldiers Who Served in the American Army During the Revolutinoary War, M804, Roll 1388.
[46] Aimee Thompson, Mobile, Alabama, Journal 1 July 1991, Research Journal, 1991; Thompson Family, Schmidt Research Files; privately held by Kendra Schmidt, Vienna, Austria.

 

Posted in Biographies, Military Service, My Family Ancestry | Tagged , , | 5 Comments

Birthday Celebration – Anna Jane Beaton Hyde

Anna Jane Beaton, 1926, Omaha, NE. Photo entered in National Photo Competition.

Anna Jane Beaton, 1926, Omaha, NE.

June 21st celebrates the summer solstice and the birth date of my grandmother, Anna Jane Beaton Hyde. She was born 109 years ago in 1907 in Omaha, Nebraska.  It was a notable year for celebrity births, such as Katherine Hepburn, Laurence Olivier, John Wayne, and Frida Kahlo, to name just a few.  However, no star could ever outshine the grace, beauty, spunk,  and wisdom of Grams.

From an early age she inspired me with stories of her travels and adventures. She shared scrapbooks filled with newspaper clippings  and photos documenting her life as well as her ancestors. My intention to write a more complete biography for my grandmother’s birthday failed. It is an ongoing project. However, thanks to Amy Johnson Crow and her suggestion to create videos using the free adobe spark program, I  compiled a brief video tribute to my grandmother, Anna Jane Beaton Hyde.  You can view it by clicking on the following link : https://spark.adobe.com/video/ByNz8InE

Genealogy Sketch

Anna Jane BEATON
Name: Anna Jane BEATON 1907-1998
Parents: Alfred James BEATON and
Edith Marion ORCUTT
Spouse: John Frederick HYDE Jr.
Children: Jean Ann Marie HYDE
Relationship to Kendra: Grandmother

  1. Anna Jane Beaton Hyde
  2. Jean Ann Marie Hyde Hopp Eichorn
  3. Kendra Hopp Schmidt

 

Posted in Biographies, My Family Ancestry | Tagged , , | 14 Comments

JOSHUA HYDE LIBRARY – THE RICH REWARDS OF PROBATE RECORDS- PART III

Joshua Hyde Library, Sturbridge, Massachusetts.

Joshua Hyde Library, Sturbridge, Massachusetts.

Reading a tantalizing tale takes the imagination and catapults it into other worlds.  As a grade school child I scoured the Scholastic catalog eagerly checking off each book I desperately wanted. What a thrill to order new books and dive into reading them! With four siblings competing to buy books, I had limited options.  Checking out books from the school library or the public library ensured an endless stream of reading material. I lived in the country on a farm so a trip to the library in Longmont, Colorado was an adventure. I always checked out the maximum number of books allowed. The genres changed through the years from the adventures of “Little House on the Prairie,” to Nancy Drew mysteries, and later travel and history. Every time I move I still explore the local public library and acquire a lending card.

Imagine my delight when several years ago, I learned that my 4x great-grandfather, Joshua Hyde, had a library named after him in Sturbridge, Massachusetts, the Joshua Hyde Public Library. My first genealogy road trip included a visit to this library. Like a novice family historian I hastily gathered the information I thought I needed and neglected to note sources and take sufficient photos. Imagine my dismay when I realized I couldn’t publish this blog because I realized I lacked photos of the library interior and source citations. I promptly sent out a message on www.genlighten.com, a genealogy website, to find a researcher.  David J. McTigue, who specializes in New England research, obtained the documents and photos I requested.

JOSHUA HYDE LIBRARY DEDICATION

On July 22, 1897, the Sturbridge community gathered precisely at half-past one o’clock at the Congregational Church. Despite the pouring rain they packed the pews to listen to Dr.Professor George H. Haynes speak. The crowd responded with thunderous applause to his last statement.

Joshua Hyde Public Library, A Centennial Celebration 1897-1997. Image courtesy of Joshua Hyde Public Library.

Joshua Hyde Public Library, A Centennial Celebration 1897-1997. Image courtesy of Joshua Hyde Public Library.

“A living memorial…opening its door of opportunity ever wider…through the distant, the unimagined future.”

What occasion prompted such an outpouring of community spirit? The town rejoiced at the dedication of the Joshua Hyde Library, “the grandest in Sturbridge…one of the finest structures in the Commonwealth.”[1] In 1897,  Sturbridge was not an affluent society. People worked hard and money was scarce. The completion of the new community library called for a celebration.

The Worcester Evening Gazette published an article on July 22 with a vivid description of the new library.[2]

Joshua Hyde Library 1900. Image courtesy www.digitalcommonwealth.org.

Joshua Hyde Library 1900. Image courtesy www.digitalcommonwealth.org.

“The Library building is situated on the brow of the steep hill which bounds Sturbridge Common on the west. It is of Colonial Architecture, one story high, of cream-colored brick with marble trimmings. The most striking features of the building are the entrance, with its massive white pillars, and the dome, of old design, surmounting the steep, slanted roof. To the right and left respectively, as one enters, are small cloak and toilet rooms, while a few feet further on, and nearly in the center of the room, is the librarian’s desk which faces south. The interior of the building, with the exception of the toile and cloak department, is all one large room, whose length and breadth overall are approximately those of the entire building, 50 and 23 feet respectively.”

“The southerly half, or that portion of the room to the right of the entrance, is for the accommodation of the patrons of the library and the general public; while the northerly portion, or that division in the rear of the librarian’s desk, serves as the stack room. Running entirely around the northerly division is a gallery, most of which is provided with shelving for books. The gallery is reached by stairs which rise from the librarian’s desk.”

Joshua Hyde Library, image courtesy of Joshua Hyde Library, "A Centennial Celebration."

Joshua Hyde Library, image courtesy of Joshua Hyde Library, “A Centennial Celebration.”

“Perhaps the most cosy spot in the room is the brick fireplace directly opposite the entrance on the further side of the room and beneath the end of the gallery.” [Alas, the fireplace is gone, the victim of a later expansion.] “On one side of the fireplace and in the shape of a right angle is a broad settee-like seat which forms a most comfortable nook wherin to rest and read, as it confined in a sort of recess, which reaches slightly from the main room. Running around the southerly portion of the room, beneath the windows, are beautiful panels of oak; while the walls are finished in a clouded brownish effect around which is a narrow stenciling. The stack department, in the other half of the room, including the shelving in the gallery, has a capacity for 10,000 volumes.”

Joshua Hyde Library, interior photos taken April 2016.

Joshua Hyde Library, interior photos taken April 2016.

Where did the funds come from to build the fabulous new library? The benefactor was the philanthropist George Baxter Hyde, the 7th child of Joshua and Sally Hyde.

George Baxter Hyde, portrait in the Joshua Hyde Library.

George Baxter Hyde, portrait in the Joshua Hyde Library.

From an early age,  books captivated George and he embarked on a life of learning and teaching. Born in 1811 in Sturbridge, his early education began in Sturbridge and expanded to academies in Dudley, Leicester, Amherst and Andover.  George began his teaching career in 1830 as a teacher at Walpole, MA. His career spanned 50 years of dedicated service, primarily in Boston. The last 18 years of his career George served as the headmaster at the Everett girls school. Upon his retirement in June 1878, George commented: “There has been my paradise; that is the place where I have enjoyed most; that is the place where the kindest reception was given me….Whatever I may be, and whatever faults I may have, I am a better man than I should have been if I had not had those pupils to teach.”[3] 

After retirement,  George was elected to the Boston School Committee for seven years.  When George died July 8, 1889 in Boston, he left  his property to his wife, Mary, during her lifetime. The couple had no children. When Mary died in July 1894, George’s estate benefited the local community as well as the city of Boston.[4]

GEORGE BAXTER HYDE’S WILL

1.      $2000 to the town of Sturbridge for the care of the cemeteries where his parents and grandparents are buried (The North Cemetery and the Old Burial Ground). The funds were also to provide watering places by the roadside and shade trees along the public highway.

The Old Burial Ground and The North Cemetery, Sturbridge, Massachusetts.

The Old Burial Ground and The North Cemetery, Sturbridge, Massachusetts.

2.      $14,000 for a statue of Rufus Choate, a noted Massachusetts attorney and statesman. The sculptor,  Daniel Chester French, also sculpted the Abraham Lincoln memorial statue in Washington D.C.

Rufus Choate Statue, image courtesy of www.wikipedia.com.

Rufus Choate Statue, image courtesy of www.wikipedia.com.

3.       $40,000 to the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston

4.      $20,000 to the Town of Sturbridge for a library to be named after his father, Joshua Hyde. Half of the funds were designated for the land and the building.  The remainder was  for books and the upkeep of the library.

Joshua Hyde Library, Sturbridge, Massachusetts.

Joshua Hyde Library, Sturbridge, Massachusetts.

5.      George donated all of his personal books, bookcases, pictures and engravings, his field and marine glass, his degree from Harvard College, and his best eight-day clock.

Sturbridge_library_clock_1

Eight-day clock donated by George Baxter Hyde to the Joshua Hyde Library. George’s portrait is to the left of the clock.

 

Thank you George Baxter Hyde for honoring the memory of your father, Joshua Hyde, who died 178 years ago.  The Joshua Hyde Public Library is 119 years old and continues to serve Sturbridge community.  The young visit the library to borrow books,  hear stories in the company of a therapy dog and librarian, or to create crafts. Teens and adults enjoy lectures and book club events. The Joshua Hyde Public Library is a small library in a small town but its contribution perpetuates learning and reading.  Joshua, a modest man, might not have cared if anyone knew who he was, but it mattered to his son George who fondly remembered the father who inspired him. How many residents of Sturbridge ask, “Who was Joshua Hyde?” I would enjoy seeing a brief history section added to the library website describing Joshua Hyde as a typical American patriot.

Joshua Hyde Library, Sturbridge, Massachusetts

Joshua Hyde Library, Sturbridge, Massachusetts

Joshua reflects the American spirit and independence. Dedicated to his family and country, he marched to war at age 16 and served for periods of time from 1777-1783. His personal account of his experiences unfolds in the next article as I examine his pension record.


[1] Burns, Charles E. Joshua Hyde Public Library, A Centennial Celebration. Sturbridge: Joshua Hyde Library, 1997. Print. “Hyde Memorial.” Worcester Evening Gazette [Sturbridge] 22 July 1897:  Print.
[2] Ibid
[3] Dean, John Ward. The New England Genealogical Register Vol XLVI. Boston: NEHGS, 1892. Archive.org. Web. 8 Apr 2016. http://www.archive.org, 409-410.
[4] Burns, Charles E. Joshua Hyde Public Library, A Centennial Celebration. Sturbridge: Joshua Hyde Library, 1997. Print.

 

© 2016 copyright Kendra Hopp Schmidt. All rights reserved.

Genealogy Sketch

Name: Joshua Hyde 1762-1838
Parents: Benjamin Hyde 1723-1797 and
Dorcas Dyer 1726-1787
Spouse: Sarah “Sally” Fay Hyde 1775-1850
Children:

  1. Augusta Hyde, b. 31 Oct 1795, Sturbridge, MA, d. 17 Sep 1872, Sturbridge, MA.
  2. Betsy Hastings Hyde, b. 28 Mar 1798, d. 1880, Sturbridge, MA.
  3. Charlotte Hyde, b. 26 Sep 1800, Sturbridge, MA, d. 16 Mar 1870, Brookfield, MA
  4. Benjamin Dwight Hyde, b. 12 Dec 1762, Sturbridge, MA, d. 2 Nov 1869, Sturbridge, MA
  5. Emory Hyde, b. 21 Feb 1805, Sturbridge, MA, d. 31 Oct 1830, Sturbridge, MA
  6. Frederick Baxter Hyde, b. 15 Jul 1808, Sturbridge, MA, d. 25 Feb 1852, Norwalk, Huron, Ohio
  7. George Baxter Hyde, b. 20 Mar 1811, Sturbridge, MA, d. 8 Jul 1889, Boston, MA
  8. Fitz Henry Hyde, b. 2 Jun 1814, Sturbridge, MA, d. 23 Oct 1833, Sturbridge, MA
  9. John Fay Hyde, b. 5, Aug 1817, Sturbridge, MA, d. 3 Sep 1889, Buda, Bureau, IL

Relationship to Kendra: 4th great-grandfather

  1. Joshua Hyde 1762-1838
  2. John Fay Hyde 1817-1889
  3. Frederick Albert Hyde 1851-1926
  4. John Fay Hyde 1885-1950
  5. John Frederick Hyde 1911-1980
  6. Jean Hyde Hopp Eichorn
  7. Kendra Hopp Schmidt

 

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